Two-Photon Polymerization (2PP)

2PP – M4D System

Two-photon polymerization as a direct laser writing technique allows for creating complex three-dimensional structures down to feature sizes on the order of 100 nm. Key elements of two-photon polymerization are lasers providing femtosecond pulses, suitable photosensitive materials (photoresists), a precise positioning stage and a computer to control the procedure.


Optical system:

Laser       773 nm, FWHM 8 nm, 132 fs, 80 MHz, 500 mW

Objective 1                             100 x immersion oil, NA 1,4

Objective 2                             20 x, NA 0,5

Objective 3                             50 x, NA 0,8

Focusing                                manual


Nanopositioning stages:

Lateral resolution (X, Y)                   100 nm or better (objective 1)

Vertical resolution (Z)                       500 nm or better (objective 1)

Typical processing speed                 0.1 – 10 mm/s

Maximum axis speed (X, Y)             300 mm/s

Maximum axis speed (Z)                  2000 mm/s

Laser Scanner                                  Galvano Scanner

Writing area (X, Y)                            100 mm x 100 mm

Resolution (X,Y)                                4 nm or better

Travel range (Z)                                 100 mm

Structuring height (Z)                         2 mm (objective 2)

Overall accuracy (X, Y, Z)                  ±200 nm

Repeatability (X, Y)                            ±50 nm

Repeatability (Z)                                 ±100 nm


Materials: works well with the proprietary Femtobond resin. Other photopolymerizable materials to be tested

The printer works with *.STL geometry files.